- The graphite supply chain is geographically concentrated with nearly 65% of output currently produced in China
- The U.S. pursued to promote further investment and geographical diversification within the sector, with credits granted to electric vehicles produced with critical minerals that are not supplied by ‘foreign entities of concern’
- Reflex Advanced Materials are working towards demonstrating the positive economics of the past producing, Ruby Graphite mine in Montana, USA
- The company recently revealed that they are in talks with prospective North American customers and are beginning the material qualification programs for end use potential offtake clients down the line
A battery’s anode is a crucial component of its design, responsible for receiving incoming electricity and dissipating the heat created in the process of doing so; notably, it is also almost entirely made up of graphite. Today, the world is almost entirely dependent on China for its graphite supply – the nation mines 65% of the world’s graphite, processes 85 percent and is home to the world’s sixth largest anode material producers, according to the International Energy Agency (https://ibn.fm/58toQ). Mozambique is the world’s second largest producer of the mineral, set to account for nearly 14% of global supply by 2030 according to Benchmark Minerals; nevertheless, 96% of Mozambican graphite is mined from the country’s Cabo Delgado province, a geographical territory that has seen a huge rise in insurgent activity since 2017 (https://ibn.fm/5SBqe). With the natural graphite demand set to treble over the next four years as sales of electric vehicles soar, the constrained nature of the western supply chain of the essential mineral is becoming increasingly apparent.
The U.S. predominantly uses synthetic graphite, a material largely produced from the by-products of the fossil fuel industry within its domestic battery manufacturing industry. Paradoxical to its use in powering electric vehicles, aimed towards ultimately reducing greenhouse gas emissions, synthetic graphite is…
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